Submit a Written Plan Review
This management plan is designed to help the St Cloud School District comply with CFR 1910.211 - .219 and the MDE/DCFL Best Practices for Machine Guarding requirements, understanding that the Best Practices requirements are more stringent than the OSHA standard, the Best Practices requirements are those against which the school district will be evaluated. These requirements are designed to take into consideration that students are inherently more apt to be injured than their adult counterparts based on the differences in experience, judgment and attentiveness to the tasks at hand.
As written, this plan is intended to guide the district in its efforts to provide a safe and healthy environment in which to learn, but will need to be reviewed and modified on a regular basis. The St Cloud School District is responsible for the enforcement and updating of the plan. Actual use of the plan is limited to Resource Training & Solutions and to the St Cloud School District that it represents.
Plan Review and Updated Report
Machine Guarding Management Plan Update Report
Program review and changes are documented below. Documented reviews indicate that the plan continues to meet the needs of the District, or has been modified to do so more effectively.
|| Reviewed - No changes
|| Wayne Warzecha
Overview of Machine Guarding in Schools
Wood working, auto and other equipment in shops and art areas pose serious potential hazards to student operators. Due to their age and limited experience they tend to be less trained than their adult counterparts and require a higher degree of training and supervision by trained instructors. These factors, in part, form some of the basis in the development and establishment of the requirement that the OSHA standard does not go far enough to protect students for accidental injury while operating this equipment.
The development of the DCFL Best Practices for Machine Guarding manual resulted from the overriding concern for the health and safety of the student operator. It was developed by a group of representatives from the schools, MN OSHA Workplace Safety Consultation, vendors and health and safety experts.
Adherence to this plan will provide the St Cloud School District with the guidance required to provide a healthy and safe learning experience for students who operate hazardous machinery.
Anti-magnetic drop-out switch - in the event of power interruption will prevent the automatic restart of equipment upon restoration of power
Color coding - paint applied to parts of a machine which present hazards to the operator
Emergency stop - electrical switch that when depressed will immediately disconnect the machine from the source of power; red mushroom head highlighted on a yellow background of the push-button type
Flying particles - created by grinding, chemical spraying, cutting, compression, striking
Guarding - one or more methods of machine guarding to protect the operator and others in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operations, ingoing nip points, belts and pulleys, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks
Non-slip flooring - rough faced material fastened or painted on the floor at the operator's station which will prevent accidental slipping
Point of operations - the area on a machine where work is actually performed on a material being processed, i.e., cutting, shearing, punching, bending
Rotating parts - collars, couplings, cams, clutches, flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, rotating bar stock, lead screws and horizontal or vertical shafting that spins or turns
Safe work placard - a sign posted within sight of the operator warning of operating hazards
Work zone - a safe work area defined for each piece of equipment that provides a safe work area for the operator
The Employee of the St Cloud School District who has been trained and certified in the requirements of the MDE Best Practices Machine Guarding methods. Responsibilities include, but are not limited, to:
- Staff and students are made aware of safety issues and concerns related to the safe operation of machinery;
- Guards on machines are properly maintained and used;
- Students and staff follow proper operating procedures, including wearing of designated personal protective equipment;
- Lockout/tagout procedures are followed when performing maintenance and repairs to machines;
- A log is maintained of all student injuries and near-misses on machines;
- Preventative maintenance schedules are adopted to keep machines in peak operating condition;
- Instructors receive annual training on safe operating procedures; and,
- Management plan is presented to the school board for review and approval on at least an annual basis.
General Plan Requirements
- All fixed equipment shall incorporate an anti-start or anti-magnetic drop-out switch to prevent accidental restarting following a power outage.
- All fixed equipment shall incorporate an emergency stop switch, readily accessible to the operator.
- Gears, sprockets, chains, drive pulleys, flywheels, dies, couplings, shafts, saw blades, fan inlets and similar exposed moving parts which may be contacted by persons and which may cause injury shall be guarded.
- All guards shall be secured in place before being activated or used.
- Guards shall be considered a permanent part of a machine or equipment and shall be:
- Strong enough to resist normal wear and shock.
- Will not interfere with efficient operation of machine.
- Will prevent access to danger zone or point of operation.
- Afford maximum protection for operator and surrounding work areas.
- Shall not be a source of additional hazards, such as: splinters, pinch points, sharp corners.
- Fixed equipment shall be anchored as necessary to prevent "walking", vibration, tipping, etc.
- A work zone shall be identified for each piece of equipment.
- A non-slip flooring surface shall be present in the area occupied by the operator
- Safe work practice placards shall be located on or near each piece of equipment
Equipment may be color coded as required by the DCFL Best Practices Machine Guarding manual.
Preventative Maintenance Program
The St Cloud School District has accepted and will follow the recommendations of the Minnesota Department of Education Industrial Technology Preventative Maintenance Policy. Responsibility for the implementation and adherence of this policy is assigned to the Designated Person. (See Appendix E)
Bid Specification for New Equipment
To ensure that equipment purchased by the St Cloud School District is in compliance with the Best Practices manual, the district shall utilize the Bid Specification Machine Safe Guarding manual developed by the Minnesota Department of Education. Responsibility for the implementation and adherence to this policy is assigned to the Designated Person. (See Appendix D)
The Designated Person shall have attended the Minnesota Department of Education's training on machine guarding and be certified as having successfully completed the training. It will also be the responsibility of the Designated Person to provide training in machine guarding to other instructors to ensure that students are provided a safe learning environment. Other instructors who have expressed an interest in receiving training in machine guarding will also be offered the opportunity to attend this training.
Each shop or work area with hazardous machinery shall keep a log of employee or student accidents and injuries. These logs will be presented to the Safety Committee for review and recommendations. The Designated Person shall also maintain preventative maintenance records, records of machine repairs and other reports that may be required.
The superintendent or Designated Person shall present a summary of this program to the St Cloud School Board for review and approval on at least an annual basis.
Appendix A: Compliance Checklist
The following checklist serves as a quick reference for the St Cloud School District to evaluate their level of compliance.
- Identify designated person
- Train designated person
- Complete "General Requirements" section of this plan utilizing "Best Practices" (Appendix B)
- Implement "Industrial Technology Preventive Maintenance Policy" (Appendix D)
- Utilize Bid Specifications when purchasing new equipment (Appendix C)
Note: This checklist is not intended to be comprehensive in nature. The St Cloud School District should refer to their respective Exposure Control Plan which further outlines general compliance requirements.
Appendix B: Training Log
Other Safety Considerations in Shops
This is by NO MEANS a complete list—just some things for your information.
- Personal protective equipment (eye protection, face protection, ear protection, hand protection, foot protection, etc.) is available, kept in sanitary condition and used when required.
- Ensure safety glasses contain side shields.
- All persons working in the shops are properly attired. This includes long pants and close-toe shoes. Hard-sole shoes should be worn if possible since gym shoes do not afford sufficient sole and toe protection. At no time will anyone wearing a dress, shorts, or sandals be allowed to work in the shop areas as none of these garments give sufficient protection to the wearer. Also, long hair is to be tied back to avoid any chance of getting it caught in moving machinery.
- Jewelry must be removed prior to operating equipment.
- Eyewash stations are available, identified by a sign, unobstructed, operational and flushed for 3-5 minutes on a weekly basis (and flushing is documented).
- Power outage protection are available on all equipment and is tested on a regular basis to ensure proper operation (e.g. monthly). Testing is documented.
- Electrical cords on power equipment are inspected each day prior to use. Damaged equipment is taken out of service immediately:
- Work areas are kept clean and orderly. Tools and other materials are put away after use.
- Good housekeeping is maintained. Floors are clear of tripping or slipping hazards. Material is not allowed to accumulate on shop floors or in work areas. Garbage is put in proper containers.
- Oil. grease, paint, sawdust, etc., on the floor is cleaned up to prevent falls.
- Injuries are reported, recorded and investigated.
- Horseplay is not allowed.
- Equipment is inspected for proper guarding before being placed into operation.
- When equipment is repaired or serviced, lockout/tagout procedures are followed.
- Lockout/tagout equipment is available and instructors are trained in its use.
- Removing, interfering or defeating a machine guard is prohibited.
- Caution, danger and warning signs are available and observed.
- Repairs of machinery are made only by authorized employees or manufacturer representatives.
- Only electricians or authorized personnel are permitted to perform electrical work. Electric cable, weld leads, extension cords, etc.. are never used unless they are properly grounded and insulated.
- Electrical equipment is never used while standing on damp or wet surfaces or when hands are wet.
- Fire alarm pull stations, fire extinguishers, fire blankets, etc. are free of obstruction and the access to them is clearly maintained at all times.
- Fire extinguishers are inspected on a monthly basis. If an extinguisher is used to put out a fire, the extinguisher is replaced with another extinguisher until it can be recharged.
- Fire doors are not blocked in the open position.
- Sprinkler heads are not obstructed.
- Exits and the access to them are maintained clear of all obstructions.
- Electrical panels are accessible (if locked, instructor has a key) and a 3' clearance is maintained in front of electrical panels at all times.
- Compressed air is never used for cleaning purposes or for blowing off clothing. Ensure a vacuum cleaner is used for this purpose.
- Material is stacked in such a manner as to prevent tipping or falling.
- Compressed gas tanks are secured at all times. Valve protection caps are installed when not in use. Cylinders are transported only in approved carts. Shutoff wrenches are available on tanks not equipped with valves. Tanks are labeled as *Full* or *Empty*. Oxygen and acetylene tanks in storage are stored 20' feet apart or are separated by a half-hour fire rated wall.
- Material is clamped or secured to prevent it from shifting or rotating when drilling, grinding, operating a lathe, etc.
- Material Safety Data Sheets are available in shops for hazardous chemicals. Safe chemical handling procedures are followed.
- Food and soft drinks are not allowed in shop areas.
- Students are not allowed to work in shops unsupervised.
- Power is turned off and disconnected before leaving the machine. Machines are never to be left unattended until the machine has completely stopped.
- Students are instructed in all safe operating procedures of the various machines and safe operating procedures are enforced.
- Used rags, particularly oily and greasy rags, are kept in a marked, covered, metal receptacle a safe distance away from spark producing equipment.
- The use of flammable chemicals is not allowed near spark producing equipment.
- Flammable materials over 10 gallons in quantity are kept in self-closing flammable liquid storage cabinets.
- Hand tools shall be maintained in good condition. Check on a regular basis for defects such as: cracked handles, mushroomed heads, etc.
- Knives and cutting tools are kept in sheaths or holders made for the purpose when not in use.
- Brush, hooks or special tools are used for removing chips and shavings. NEVER use the hands! Do not allow chips to accumulate.
- Tools and equipment are used for their intended purpose. Tools and equipment are not altered, modified or used for other than their intended purpose without the manufacturer's written approval or unless under the direction of a competent person in accordance with accepted engineering requirements to prevent creating an additional hazard.
- Finishing is done only in approved areas.
- Dust collection system is operating properly. Material Safety Data Sheets are available for the various types of wood.
- Electric overhead doors have one of the following: constant pressure closing switch, safety edge, pressure relief mechanism, electronic eye or a 3-button control station with a sign stating: WARNING! Do not start downward unless doorway is clear!
- Overhead storage areas are labeled for load rating capacity.
- Ladders are Type I or Type U and are inspected on a monthly basis and after all incidents where they could have been damaged (i.e. knocked over). Defective ladders are tagged and taken out of service. Training is provided for the safe use of ladders.
- Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts which are suspended or held aloft by slings, cables, chains, jacks or hoists are blocked or cribbed to prevent falling or shifting before employees or students are permitted to work under or between members of the equipment.
- Jacks are inspected at least every six months (and documentation is maintained).
- Hoists are inspected on at least a monthly basis and documentation is maintained.
- Safety latches (mousings) are provided on all hoist hooks used on hoists or cranes that lift or travel with loads attached.
- Piping is labeled (air. natural gas, propane, etc.)
Appendix D: Bid Specification: Machine Safe Guarding
Information can be listed on separate sheet attached to Bid
1) List company qualifications and certifications on performing large-scale turn-key machine safeguarding projects.
2) Show proof of insurance for Liability Insurance in the amount of $1,000,000 per incident and $2,000,000 aggregate with an additional $1,000,000 umbrella and proof of Errors and Omissions Insurance.
3) List references of large-scale, complete turnkey machine safeguarding projects your company has completed, which include all phases of machine safe-guarding for woodworking machinery, metalworking machinery, maintenance machinery, and colorcoding.
School District Name: ____________________________________
School District Contact: ____________________________________
Phone Number: ____________________________________
School District Name: ____________________________________
School District Contact: ____________________________________
Phone Number: ____________________________________
School District Name: ____________________________________
School District Contact: ____________________________________
Phone Number: ____________________________________
Serious injury can result from coming into contact with the moving parts of a machine. This guide describes methods to protect instructors/students from machine hazards.
The safeguarding of any single machine depends on the classroom setting. Variables to consider include:
- Manufacture's recommendations
- Government regulations
- Accepted industry standards
- Instructor/student training and skill
- Environmental factors
- Cost of safeguarding options
1.1 What is Machine Safeguarding?
Machine safeguarding is the application of engineering, work practice, and administrative controls to help prevent the injury of instructors/students who operate machines or who are in the vicinity of machine operations. The primary steps of machine safeguarding are:
- Identifying the machine hazards
- Prioritizing safeguarding efforts based on the most predictable injury and the probability of occurrence
- Developing and implementing a systematic safeguarding program
1.2 Essential Things to Know
There are five major things that you should understand about machine safeguarding:
Any machine part, function, or process that may cause injury must be safeguarded. Where possible, manufacturer-supplied means of guarding should be used.
- When safeguarding machines, propose methods that provide adequate protection and promote good processes.
- Guards, in themselves, must not create an accident hazard.
- Guards should be attached to the machine if possible.
- Machines for fixed locations must be anchored to prevent travel or tipping.
Note: Stable machines that are able to resist movement may be installed on a nonskid surface.
2.0 SUMMARY OF GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
Government regulations require the protection of instructors/students from machine hazards. Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations are found in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1910, Subpart O, Sections 1910.211-219. Facility personnel, instructors and students shall be familiar with 29 CFR 1910.147 The control of hazardous energy (Lockout and Tagout)
2.1 Common Methods of Guarding
The most common methods of machine safeguarding are:
- Fixed barrier guards (preferred)
- Adjustable barrier guards
- Interlocking devices
- Remote control and placement
- Two-hand control devices
- Electronic safety devices
- Removal devices Pressure-sensing devices
Power transmission equipment that is within 7 feet of the floor or other working surface must be guarded by fixed enclosure guards.
2.2 Other Regulatory Requirements
Key regulations are summarized in the following paragraphs:
Guard Attachment—Affix guards to the machine where possible. Secure guards elsewhere if attachment to the machine is not possible. The guard must not pose an accident hazard in itself.
Point of Operation—Guard the point of operation if it exposes an instructor or student to injury. Design and construct the guard to prevent the instructor or student from having any body parts in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
Special Handtools—Special handtools provide supplemental protection for instructors/students when placing and removing material. They permit easy handling of materials and eliminate the need for instructors/students to place a hand in the danger zone. Such tools do not replace guarding.
Barrels, Containers and Drums—Enclose revolving drums, barrels, or containers, and interlock them with the drive mechanism so that they cannot revolve unless the guard enclosure is in place.
Blades—Blades of a fan that are 7 feet or less above the floor or working surface require guards that have openings no larger than 14 inch.
Anchoring—Securely anchor machines designed for a fixed location to prevent them from walking or moving.
3.0 SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDING PROCESS
If, after a complete inspection of the machine is performed, and it is determined and agreed by the administration that the most cost effective method to correct the hazards on the machine is to replace the machine. The following administrative practices should be used when acquiring school district machines:
- Before purchase or lease, evaluate machines for safety and health hazards. Guards provided by vendors do not always fully enclose the power transmission apparatus. Involve the safety administrator at the earliest stage of the procurement process and in the approval process before a bid specification is sent out. Specifications must be tailored to specific machines. (See "APPENDIX B - BID SPECIFICATION EXAMPLE)
- Write bid specifications that require that machines meet or exceed the applicable industry standards of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), OSHA, state and provincial regulatory agencies, the National Electric Code (NEC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Require prospective suppliers of machine to certify in writing that the machines meet or exceed the most recent industry standards.
- When received from the supplier, inspect machines to ensure they comply with the bid specification. A safety representative should participate in the final acceptance inspection, and should sign to release the machine.
3.2 Training and Communication:
Instructors and maintenance personnel shall receive training from the contractors designated trainer on the new guarding equipment before working with machines.
- Contractor shall train instructors and maintenance personal in the proper operation and adjustment of the new guarding equipment and permitted maintenance tasks, and emergency shutdown procedures for each machine.
- Note: It is the school districts obligation to ensure that machine operators (instructors and students), and maintenance personnel read and understand the applicable sections of a machine's owner/operator manual before operating each machine. Periodic refresher training or instruction is recommended.
When installing or anchoring a machine, the following guidelines should be used:
- Allow enough space between machines to ensure safe operation and material handling. Involve safety personnel or instructor at the earliest stage of the installation design or anchoring process.
- Install machines according to the manufacturer's instructions. Secure machines for fixed locations to prevent them from traveling during operation or if struck by equipment or personnel.
- Locate operator controls within easy reach of the operator. Operators should be able to get to controls without reaching over hazardous areas or points of operation.
- Install a disconnect switch that can be locked in the off position where applicable.
- It is the school districts obligation to mount safety placards on each machine that explains the safe work practices and procedures for that machine. If it is not practical to mount the placard on a machine, place the placard on the wall next to the machine in a location where the operator at the control station can easily see it. Mount placards before machines are approved for use.
Instructors or district representative who are assigned to machine safeguarding project, or maintenance/facility personnel should inspect all machines with the contractor before work is begun on the machine and note the working condition of each machine. The district representative and the contractor shall sign off on each machines condition
- This inspection shall be done also upon the completion of work on each machine.
- The contractor shall provide a document with pictures of each machine showing the completed work on each machine after completion of the project.
- The contractor shall provide a 30 day follow-up visit to make any adjustments to specific machine guards the instructor may find cumbersome or have a problem with. This adjustment is to be made only if it will still be in compliance with the applicable standards.
- The contractor shall provide a 60 day follow-up visit to make any adjustments to specific machine guards the instructor may find cumbersome or have a problem with. This adjustment is to be made only if it will still be in compliance with the applicable standards.
Machines should be used in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines.
Only trained and authorized instructors/students should operate machines.
Functional problems with a machine should be immediately documented and communicated to instructors or facilities personnel and contractor. All operators of that machine in each class should be notified of all current problems.
A preventive maintenance program should be proposed to the school district to inspect power transmission equipment at 60-day intervals, The machine manufacturer should be consulted to develop the frequency and method of preventive maintenance.
3.6.1 Control of Hazardous Energy:
Personnel working on machinery shall be trained in and follow the instruction of 29 CFR 1910.147. The control of hazardous energy. This standard covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start-up of the machines or equipment, or where release of stored energy could cause injury to people.
4.0 GUARDING METHODS
Any machine that grinds, shears, punches, presses, squeezes, draws, drills, cuts, rolls, mixes, or performs a similar action should be guarded. Safeguarding should prevent the operator and other personnel from being struck, caught, burned, exposed to electric shock, or hit with chips or coolant.
If the manufacturer's recommendations for safeguarding do not meet government or industry standards, additional safeguarding should be implemented to comply with these standards.
A machine should be operated only when all safeguards are functional and in place. No control or component of the machine's safeguarding system should be altered or bypassed, including limit switches, light curtains, interlocks, and presence-sensing
4.1 Color Codes:
Machines shall be color coded according to ANSI 535.1 standards. A copy of this standard should be obtained and followed by the contractor. For example, where there is an intermediate level of hazard, the parts shall be colorcoded with safety orange. Additional examples of ANSI 535.1 include:
- Hazardous parts of machines that may cut, crush, or otherwise injure. Such hazards shall be colored with an orange paint that shows when enclosures doors are open.
- The insides of movable guards and transmission guards for gears, rims of pulleys only, sprockets, and the like.
- Exposed parts (edges only) of pulleys, gears, rollers, cutting devices, power jaws, and the like.
- Guards and protective covers shall be color-coded with safety yellow. This designates that dangerous parts of machinery or energized electrical components are contained inside the guards and caution must be exercised.
- Portions of transparent shields designed to afford a clear view of the operation should not be painted.
- Metal-mesh guards should be painted black to improve the operator's visibility. The border of the guard should be painted with safety yellow.
- All painting shall be done in a professional manner including complete degreasing, cleaning, sanding, scuffing, masking, priming, and coated with one coat of prime, two coats of appropriate color and two coats of clear on all appropriate parts to be color-coded. The paint shall be of a material that will not be affected by any fluids used on the machine.
- All parts shall be reassembled onto the machine and the machine readjusted to proper working order.
- Careful inspection of the machine shall be done on any disassembly and reassembly of the machine to look for and notify the school district of any worn, cracked, or damaged parts that need immediate replacement. If these parts are determined that its continued use would pose a hazard to operate the machine, the machine shall be locked out and the school district notified of the reason. Appropriate action for repair will then be determined by the school district.
- Re-grease and/or oil all parts that have been cleaned and require additional grease or oil upon re-assembly or re-activation.
- See "Appendix C - Examples of properly color coded machines"
4.2 General Rules for Guarding:
- Protect the operator and other personnel in the machine area from hazards such as those created by the point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips, and sparks.
- Be attached to the machine or secured elsewhere if attachment is not possible.
- Wherever possible, be of the model and manufacture type tested and approved by the Industrial Technology Committee.
- Not pose an accident hazard in itself.
- Conform to applicable government and industry standards. In the absence of such standards, it must be designed and constructed to prevent the operator and other personnel from having any body part in the danger zone during the machine's operating cycle.
- Be secured with fasteners that are removable only with tools not readily available to the operator.
- Facilitate machine inspection as practical.
- Permit maximum visibility of the point of operation.
- Have no openings larger than those allowed in the following table:
4.3 Power Transmission Apparatus
Hazards such as belts, gears, sprockets, chains, shafts, and pulleys that are associated with power transmissions apparatus must be guarded.
- Cover all moving parts of power transmission apparatus that are within 7 feet from the floor or working platform.
- Guard all exposed parts of horizontal, vertical, and inclined shafting that are within 7 feet from the floor or working platform. Use one of the following methods:
- A stationary casing constructed of expanded, perforated, or solid-sheet metal.
- A helical-wound metal strip completely enclosing the shafting.
- A collapsible or telescoping guarding device.
- Guard rotating shaft ends with non-rotating caps or sleeves unless the projection is less than one-half the diameter of the shaft and the .projecting end is completely smooth.
- For machines that require frequent oiling, use openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers provided by the manufacturer.
- Provide oil lubrication points at remote or ground-level mechanisms where necessary.
- Contractors regular oilers/greasers personnel shall wear tight fitting clothing.
- Whenever possible, contractor shall oil machinery when equipment is not in motion.
- Protect instructors/students from projections in revolving parts by:
- Removing the projections (preferred).
- Making the projections flush.
- Guarding the projections with a metal cover. This does not apply to keys and setscrews already guarded within gear or sprocket casings.
4.4 Switches and Remote Controls
Switches and remote controls should be safeguarded as follows:
- Inspect all switches, operating controls, and control buttons to make sure they are in good working condition at all times. If a component is found to be damaged or missing, immediately notify the school district to arrange a work order to repair or replace it.
- Install an approved emergency stop device (NEMA 12 rated) or the Easy Off™ Power Control according to the ""Best Practice"" manual adopted by DCFL for use as a standardized emergency-stop on all machines that are applicable so operators can shut off the machine without moving from the normal operators position while operating the machine.
- Where the application of the Easy Off™ Power Control is not practical, an approved mushroom type emergency stop (red in color with a yellow background) shall be used.
- Guard the sides and tops of foot-operated control pedals to "prevent accidental activation.
- Never install a foot-operated control to operate a machine unless safeguarding is installed to prevent hands or other body parts from entering the point of operation.
- Ensure that all machines have power outage protection.
- Electrical equipment and its installation shall comply with the NEC and NFPA standards.
- Electronic brakes shall be installed on all long-coasting machines.
4.5.1 Bar Stock
When revolving bar stock is being machined, the part of the bar stock that extends beyond the machine should be supported and guarded. Stock tubes should be used to accomplish this. The protective ends of stock tubes must be color-coded with safety yellow to warn against their unexpected movement.
For machines not equipped with stock tubes, a suitable fixed or movable barrier should be erected around the hazard area to prevent inadvertent access.
4.6 Plant Equipment
Pumps and compressors: Guarding for the couplings between the prime mover and the machine may be a simple U-shaped guard to prevent accidental contact. In mechanical rooms a standard rail or equivalent (e.g., fence) may be used rather than the U-shaped guard.
5.0 SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
The following references may be helpful in the development of site implementation plans.
"Safety Requirements for Woodworking Machinery," American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 01.1,1992.
"Safety Requirements for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels," ANSI B7.1,1988.
"Mechanical Power Presses—Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.1,1988.
"Hydraulic Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use", ANSI B11.2,1982.
"Power Press Brakes - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use", ANSI B11.3,1982 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Shears - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.4, 1993.
"Ironworkers - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.5,1988 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Lathes - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.6,1984 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Drilling, Milling, and Boring Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.8,1983 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Grinding Machines: Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.9, 1987.
"Metal Sawing Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.10, 1990.
"Gear-cutting Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.11,1985 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Roll-forming and Roll-bending Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSI B11.12,1983 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Single-and Multiple-spindle Automatic Bar and Chucking Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care and Use," ANSI B11.13, 1992.
"Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care an Use," ANSI B11.15, 1989 (reaffirmed 1994).
"Safeguarding When Referenced by the Other B11 Machine Tool Safety Standards - Performance Criteria for the Design, Construction, Care, and Operation," ANSI B11.19,1990.
"Manufacturing Systems/Cells - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use," ANSIB11.20,1991.
"Forging Machinery - Safety Requirements," ANSI B24.1, 1985 (reaffirmed 1991).
"Safety Standard for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus," ANSI B15.1, 1992.
"Gauges - Pressure-Indicating Dial Type - Elastic Element," ANSI B40.1,1991; Special notice, 1992.
"Rivet setting Equipment - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use." ANSI B154.1,1984.
"Industrial Robots and Robot Systems - Safety Requirements," ANSI R15.06, 1992.
"Safety Color Code," ANSI Z535.1, 1991.
"Environmental and Facility Safety Signs," ANSI Z535.2.1991.
"Criteria for Safety Symbols," ANSI Z535.3,1991.
"Product Safety Signs and Labels," ANSI Z535.4,1991.
"Machine Guarding - Assessment of Need," National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1975, HEW Publication 75-173.
"Guidelines for Robotics Safety," Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Instruction PUB 8-1.3.
"Defining Acceptable Guarding of Fan Blades," OSHA Program Direction 100-5, Instruction 1-12.1.
"Abrasive Wheel Machinery - Work Rests," OSHA Program Direction 100-39, Instruction 1-12.8.
"Interim Instructions Concerning Specifications of Materials Used for Machine Guarding and Anchoring of Equipment," OSHA Program Directive 100-52, Instruction 1-12.11.
"General Requirements for All Machines, As Applied to Power Press Brakes," OSHA Program Directive 100-44, Instruction 1-12.12.
"Masonry Saws." OSHA Program Directive 100-59, Instruction 1- 12.13.
"Clarification of Terms 'Enclosed' and 'Fully Enclosed' as Applying to Power Transmission Belts," OSHA Program Directive 100-64, Instruction 1-12.14.
"Radial Saw Guards," OSHA Program Directive 100-91. Instruction 1- 12.17.
"Woodworking Machinery Guarding Requirements," OSHA Program Directive 100-92, Instruction 1-12.18.
"Mechanical Power Presses Single Stroke Mechanism Requirements," OSHA Program Directive 100-98, Instruction 1-12.20.
"Mechanical Power Presses, Clarifications," OSHA Program Directive 100-100, Instruction 1-12.21.
"Mechanical Power Presses, as Applied to the Safeguarding Requirements for Die setters," OSHA Instruction 1-12.24.
"Awareness Barriers Installed on Metal Cutting Shears," OSHA Instruction 1-12.25.
"Guards Illustrated," National Safety Council (NSC), 3rd edition,
"Power Press Manual." NSC, 4th edition,
National Electric Code.
"Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery," National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 79, 1999.
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Authorized Operator — An instructor or student who is recognized as adequately trained and technically competent to safely operate a specific machine.
Enclosures—Guarding by fixed physical barriers that are mounted on or around a machine to prevent access to moving parts.
Guard—An engineering control that uses either fixed or adjustable barriers to prevent personnel from contacting the moving parts of machinery or equipment.
Interlocking—A type of guard that, when opened or removed, causes the machine's cycling mechanism or power to automatically shut off or disengage; the machine cannot be cycled or started until the guard is back in place.
Machine—An assemblage of parts that transmit forces, motion, and energy in a predetermined manner for performing a task.
Point of Operation—The area on a machine where work is actually being performed upon the material being processed. On some machines, there may be more than one point of operation.
Power Transmission Equipment—Horizontal or vertical belts or shafts, pulleys, gears, sprockets, couplings, chains, clutches, connecting rods, flywheels, and other such equipment.
APPENDIX B: BID SPECIFICATION EXAMPLE
Note: This is an example of a bid specification used for a medium sized milling machine. It has been slightly modified for inclusion in this document It is intended to be used as a guide for developing bid specifications for replacement of machines determined not to be cost efficient to retro-fit appropriate safe-guards and it has been determined necessary to replace the machine. This specification references many OSHA and industry standards; however, it is not comprehensive for all machine tools. Specifications must be tailored to specific machines. All new machinery must follow the DCFL approved bid specification document.
BID SPECIFICATION FOR A
(INSERT TYPE OF MACHINE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 INTENDED USE
2.0 APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS
3.2 CAPACITY, SIZE
3.4 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
3.5 HYDARULIC EQUIPMENT
3.9 PRESSURE VESSELS
4.0 INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE
5.0 OPERATING, INSTALLATION AND TEST DATA
5.2 PARTS LIST
6.5 STATUS REPORTS
6.8 FOCAL POINT FOR COMMUNICATION
8.0 ORDERING DATA
8.1 PRESERVATION AND PACKING
8.2 SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS
Appendix E: Industrial Technology Preventative Maintenance Policy
Maintenance and Repair Considerations
Properly maintained machines that are repaired as needed are safe machines. In a busy work environment it is often difficult to ensure that machines are maintained in excellent condition. Too often the demands of production, the careless mistakes of employees, and limited personnel resources may hinder your effort to keep machines in A-l condition.
The goal of this section is to help you organize your maintenance and repair effort so that you can get the maximum return on the work you put into keeping your machines running well and safely.
In this guide, you will consider the following issues:
- Employee authorizations for maintenance and repair
- Lockout/tagout requirements for maintenance and repair work
- Maintenance schedules
- Encouraging employees to report machine problems promptly
- Machine repairs
- Repair records
- Safe handling and disposal of machine fluids
The following checklist indicates in more detail the scope of maintenance and repair issues that need to be addressed as part of a comprehensive machine safety program.
Maintenance and Repair Checklist
- Are only trained and authorized personnel allowed to perform maintenance and repairs on machinery?
- Do employees know and understand their authorization status and the consequences of violating this policy?
- Have maintenance / repair workers received up-to-date instruction on the machines they service?
- Are maintenance/repair workers trained in the requirements of OSHA's lockout/tagout standard (§1910.147)?
- Do maintenance/repair workers lock and tagout the machine from its power source before beginning repairs?
- Where several maintenance/repair people work on the same machine, are multiple lockout devices used?
- Do maintenance/repair personnel use appropriate and safe equipment in their repair work?
- Do maintenance/repair personnel wear required PPE while performing maintenance or repairs on machines?
- Is maintenance equipment itself properly guarded?
- Are all machines serviced on a regular schedule?
- Do employees know how to report machine problems?
- Are repairs made promptly and completely?
- Is there an effective system to follow up on repairs to make sure that they have been made and that the machine is ready to go back in service?
- Are machine fluids handled, stored, and disposed of safely?
Employees who make repairs and perform maintenance on machinery face many hazards-more than machine operators under normal circumstances. For example, it is often necessary to remove guards during the course of maintenance and repair work, potentially exposing the employee to the hazard of the machine's moving parts. (Sometimes it is necessary to keep machines running while certain aspects of servicing are completed but employees must still be protected.) Furthermore, the employee may come into contact with electrical connections, machine fluids, and other machine hazards that can lead to accidents if employees are not properly trained to deal with these situations.
That's why it's so important that employees who are designated to per- form maintenance and repairs receive comprehensive training to pre- pare them to do this specialized work safely. Authorizations to perform this maintenance and repair work should be based on satisfactory completion of required training.
It is necessary, therefore, to have a clearly defined authorization system. This will help avoid situations where employees who have not been properly trained take repair matters into their own hands and risk injury. All employees must understand the extent of their responsibilities concerning maintenance and repairs and obey the rides. You must be pre- pared to back your system up with disciplinary action if necessary.
Another consideration concerning authorization is sufficient coverage. You want to be sure that you have enough people trained and authorized to handle maintenance and repairs to cover all shifts at your facility. There should always be someone on hand to perform repairs, with back- up available to account for absences. If trained and authorized personnel arc not always on hand to handle repairs, employees who are not trained and authorized are likely to try to fix their own machines rather than wait-and that can lead to serious accidents.
The following chart can help you organize your authorization system to make sure that you are adequately covered during all shifts.
Section 1910.147 of the standard establishes the requirements for locking and tagging out machinery before potentially hazardous maintenance or repairs are performed. Maintenance personnel and other employees who may be authorized to perform maintenance and repairs on any machine need to know the rules for safe lockout / tagout, and they must be committed to using them every time they work on a machine.
The basic steps for safe lockout / tagout of machines are as follows:
- Turn off the machine and disconnect the energy source: Shut the machine down by the normal stopping procedure. Pull the plug, flip the power switch, break the circuit, close a valve, or otherwise neutralize stored energy-in other words, do whatever is necessary to turn off the machine and disconnect the energy source. Then test the "on" switch to make sure the power has really been disconnected. When that's been lone, turn the switch back to "off"
- Lock out energy sources: Use a lock to prevent the flow of energy from being restored. Snap your lock on the control lever or on the multiple-lock adapter. Test the disconnect to make sure it can't be moved to the "on" position. In other words, make it impossible for the flow of energy to be reestablished without your knowledge. Pulling a fuse or flipping a circuit breaker is no substitute for locking out.
- Tag the disconnect point: Even though you're using a lock, it is a good idea to place a tag at the disconnect point. A tag provides vital information and extra protection. It tells everyone who you are and what you're doing; it also instructs them not to restore energy. When it's physically impossible to use a lock, a tag is absolutely essential.
- Release residual energy: Zero energy state must be achieved. This means that the machine has been put in a state in which the possibility of an unexpected mechanical movement has been reduced to a minimum. Some equipment doesn't run on electricity alone; hydraulic and pneumatic devices may also be involved. You must make sure you re- lease all stored energy that could cause sudden movement.
- Test equipment to make sure it won't run: It is necessary to test equipment to make sure it wont run before working on it. A disconnect switch could be defective, or the wrong switch could have been thrown, leaving the circuit energized. Or your efforts to achieve zero energy state may have been ineffective, and there may be stored energy remaining in the machine. Therefore, after you have completed the first four steps, turn on the switch or push the start button on the machine to make sure you've successfully blocked out all energy sources. Then return the switch to the "off position.
- Restore energy safely: When you've finished working, check to make sure all tools have been removed, all lines have been reconnected or un- blocked, all guards have been replaced, and all other workers are safely out of the way. Only then should you remove your lock and tag and turn the machine on. Be sure you have notified all co-workers so that you don't expose anyone to danger by removing your lock.
For machines to work properly and function safely, they must be routinely maintained. Proper maintenance increases productivity and prevents accidents.
Setting up a maintenance schedule for all the machines in your facility and following up to make sure that machines are maintained according to schedule is an important responsibility.
There are many things to consider:
- Type of machine. Some machines require more frequent maintenance than others.
- Amount of use the machine gets. Machines that are used constantly will require more frequent maintenance than those that are used only intermittently.
- Manufacturer recommendations for servicing intervals. Manufacturers can provide servicing information that can also help you set up a proper maintenance schedule for particular machines.
- Best time to take machine out of service. Your scheduling will also probably take into account the times you can best afford to take a ma- chine out of service for maintenance. Shifts when production slows down are good times for machine maintenance.
- Availability of trained and authorized personnel. Maintenance schedules must also take into account the availability of personnel needed to do the job.
- OSHA 1910.219 (P)(l) requires that every power transmission apparatus be inspected at a frequency not to exceed 60 days.
Click here to download the Machine Maintence Schedule Form
It is essential to have an effective system in place that makes it easy for employees to report machine problems and request repairs. If it is not easy for employees to report problems, or if they report problems and no action is taken (or action is slow to be taken), you are asking for trouble. Under those circumstances, employees are likely to either not bother to report problems or to try to make repairs themselves, even when they are not authorized to do so. And that increases the risk of accidents and injuries.
Employees must also be taught to use the reporting system correctly. In order for the system to be effective, employees need to explain the nature of the problem, being specific about their observations. It may take some work with some employees until they are able to do this well. But it is important that all employees who work with machines be able to communicate essential information about needed repairs to help the repair people perform their jobs more efficiently.
An effective repair reporting system includes the following elements:
- Make sure employees know what to do when repairs are needed. They should know to shut down the machine and tag it out to make sure no one else uses it until it is properly repaired.
- Be certain they know whom to contact for repairs. It may be a supervisor, the maintenance department, or some other designated person on each shift who should be contacted. Employees must know who this person or department is and how to reach them. A designated contact should be readily available at all times.
- Log repair requests. A logging system can help back up oral reports. It's fine to have employees call Maintenance to report machine problems. But you want to make sure that these repair requests don't fall through the cracks. A written logging system can help ensure that repair requests do not go unanswered. A logging system can either be a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) or simply consist of a notebook kept outside the supervisor's office.
- Follow up to make sure repairs are being made. The log will help you follow up to make sure that repair requests are being acted on. By checking the log daily, it will be possible to avoid mix-ups and situations where requests for repairs are somehow overlooked.
- Check to make sure repairs have been made. Once repair requests have gone through and repairs are in process, it is necessary to follow up again to make sure that repairs are completed and that the machine is back in service and operating properly.
The repair request form that follows can be adapted to suit your repair reporting system. It serves a dual purpose. The top of the form deals the needed repairs and is filled out by the machine operator. The bottom of the form is filled out by the repair person when the repairs been completed. This form can then be filed and serve as part of machine repair record.
Keeping complete and accurate repair records is important for a number of reasons:
- An OSHA compliance officer may ask to see them. In the event of an OSHA inspection or during the course of an accident investigation, an inspector will probably want to verify that the machine in question was in good operating condition and that necessary repairs had been made.
- Repair records may be required for machine warranties. Manufacturers may want to look at repair records when they are being asked to honor warranties. They will be looking to see that appropriate and timely repairs have been made according to specifications.
- Records of past repairs may help you understand current problems. Repair personnel may wish to review the repair history of a machine before initiating further repairs. This information may help with trouble- shooting.
- Repair records can help determine when machines need to be replaced. A machine with a history of repeated repairs, especially when those repairs deal with the same problem, may be unsafe and need to be replaced. Your repair records will help make these kinds of determinations.
Click here to download the Machine Repair Records Form
Some machining and metalworking fluids used as coolants and lubricants pose hearth hazards if proper PPE and handling methods are not used. That's why it's important for personnel performing maintenance and repairs to take special precautions when handling, storing, and disposing of these materials.
- Safe handling. These chemicals can be hazardous in a variety of ways. Prolonged exposure can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and even cancer in some cases. That's why it's essential that employees who regularly come in contact with these chemicals while servicing machines take proper precautions and wear appropriate PPE to protect themselves against the hazards. These employees should be familiar with the information contained in the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the substance, and they should pay attention to cautions on the container labels.
- Safe storage. These chemicals must be stored in containers that are appropriately labeled according to the instructions on the MSDS. All warnings and cautions concerning storage should be observed, damaged or leaking containers should be removed or replaced.
- Safe disposal. When maintenance personnel drain fluids from machines, these fluids should be properly disposed of according to the instructions provided on the MSDS. Machine fluids should never be poured down drains or poured onto the ground. If these used fluids are placed into temporary holding barrels, these barrels should be checked frequently to make sure they are not leaking.
The following form can help you manage the safe handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous machine fluids.
A Visual Guide to Guards and Controls